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Apartheid legislation NP leaders argued that South Africa did not comprise a single nation, but was made up of four distinct racial groups: Such groups were split into 13 nations or racial federations. White people encompassed the English and Afrikaans language groups; the black populace was divided into ten such groups. The state passed laws that paved the way for “grand apartheid”, which was centred on separating races on a large scale, by compelling people to live in separate places defined by race. This strategy was in part adopted from “left-over” British rule that separated different racial groups after they took control of the Boer republics in the Anglo-Boer war. This created the black-only “townships” or “locations”, where blacks were relocated to their own towns.

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Tuesday, October 16, Well before President Donald Trump began slapping tariffs on steel, aluminum and other imported goods, there was a deal with South Africa that gave U. But that trade deal, worth tens of millions of dollars to American businesses, now is being threatened by Trump’s metal tariffs. They cite a lawsuit in South Africa that aims to end duty-free imports of American chicken unless South Africa is exempted from Trump’s metal tariffs.

The dispute illustrates the risk Trump runs by employing tariffs so aggressively. The president has wielded the import taxes — real and threatened — as part of a campaign to force countries like Mexico and Canada into trade pacts with terms he considers more favorable to the United States. But along with Trump’s confrontational approach is the potential fallout for American companies and consumers, as countries take retaliatory action.

And it’s also a reminder of how much clout the poultry industry has in certain states. In Delaware, where industry titans Mountaire Farms and Perdue Farms operate processing plants, chicken accounts for 70 percent of the state’s cash farm income, according to the Delmarva Poultry Industry, a trade association in Georgetown, Delaware. Agriculture Department data show that Georgia leads all states in the production of chickens raised specifically for meat production; 1.

But in the late s, South Africa’s influential poultry industry grew alarmed over the growing amount of imports.

Land plan has some upside, big risks, says IRR

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The national flag, adopted in , consists of a blue-black triangle placed vertical to the hoist and bordered in gold-yellow. Bands of red, white, green, white, and blue appear horizontally. Two anthems are currently in use: The South African rand r is a paper currency of cents. It is used throughout the South African monetary area. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 rand, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 rand. The metric system is in use. Movable religious holidays include Good Friday and Ascension; Family Day is a movable secular holiday.

Comparatively, the area occupied by South Africa is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Texas. Considered as a whole, South Africa extends 1, km 1, mi ne—sw and 1, km mi se—nw. It is bounded on the n by Botswana and Zimbabwe formerly Rhodesia , on the ne by Mozambique and Swaziland, on the e by the Indian Ocean , on the s by the confluence of the Indian and Atlantic oceans, on the w by the Atlantic Ocean , and on the nw by Namibia.

South Africa also controls two small islands, Prince Edward and Marion, which lie some 1, km 1, mi southeast of Cape Town.

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Share ‘There is no doubt about it, land shall be expropriated without compensation. The deputy chief executive of civil rights group Afriforum said the motion was a violation of agreements made at the end of apartheid. The deputy chief executive of civil rights group Afriforum said the motion was a violation of agreements made at the end of apartheid White farmers control 73 percent of arable land compared with 85 percent when apartheid ended in , according to a recent study South African farmer pictured ‘This motion is based on a distorted image of the past,’ Ernst Roets said.

It is nothing more than racist theft. The country’s constitution is now likely to be amended to allow for the confiscation of white-owned land following a motion brought by opposition leader Julius Malema Parliament ordered its constitutional committee to report back on the issue by August

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How land-seizure talks have hit SA’s farming industry A plan to expropriate land without compensation will benefit a small number of citizens if successfully implemented but will be disastrous for most people if it goes awry, the Institute of Race Relations warned. While the party sees expropriation without payment as a way to speed up redressing racially skewed ownership patterns dating back to the colonial and apartheid era, critics say it could erode property rights and lead to Zimbabwe-style land grabs.

There is a massive risk of doing land reform badly and a modest prospect of doing it well. The populist Economic Freedom Fighters party, which has won support from young voters in impoverished townships, supports the change and wants all land nationalised. Individual farmers, some of them with good political connections, could be the biggest beneficiaries of land redistribution, according to Corrigan. Land reform plans sees agriculture confidence at two-year low A parliamentary committee is considering possible amendments to the Constitution to facilitate expropriation.

They are also reluctant to put up fences or otherwise invest in their land because their leases can be terminated at any time. Contributions of words or more will be considered for publication.


Documenting the American South Documenting the American South DAS is an impressive collection of sources by the University of North Carolina on Southern history, literature and culture from the colonial period through the first decades of the 20th century. Currently, DAS includes ten thematic collections of primary sources for the study of southern history, literature, and culture including Oral Histories of the American South, True and Candid Compositions: The project focuses on Augusta County, Virginia and Franklin County, Pennsylvania, and it presents a hypermedia archive of thousands of sources that creates a social history of the coming, fighting, and aftermath of the Civil War.

Those sources include newspapers, letters, diaries, photographs, maps, church records, population census, agricultural census, and military records. Students can explore the conflict and write their own histories or reconstruct the life stories of women, African Americans, farmers, politicians, soldiers, and families.

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Alongside the celebrated hunter-gatherer San or Bushmen rock art, southern Africa has a number of later rock art traditions made by Bantu-speaking farmers. The most extensive of these is the rock art of the Northern Sotho. This art is spread across the hills of northern South Africa. The style of Northern Sotho rock art Northern Sotho rock art is always painted as opposed to engraved and is easily distinguished from San rock paintings both by its colour and by its form.

It is predominantly executed in white, applied thickly onto the rock face by finger daubing. Occasionally, red and black pigments are used to add features to the dominantly white designs. The white pigment is made from a type of powdered clay that is found in riverbeds in the area. The choice of white as the dominant colour is a characteristic of rock art traditions belonging to African Bantu-speaking farmers.

In total nearly five hundred sites with this rock art tradition are known. Dating Northern Sotho rock art Archaeologists argue that the arrival of a particular type of pottery, called Moloko Pottery, marked the arrival of the ancestors of Northern Sotho groups into this area. The earliest dates for Moloko pottery therefore probably provide a maximum date for the arrival of this art tradition into South Africa. The oldest known Moloko sites are less than a years old, and so all of the art is likely to be younger than this.

The art divides into an earlier and a later period. In the early phase a range of wild animals are depicted including the elephant, zebra, lion, rhino, kudu, hyena and hippo, but the dominant subject is the giraffe.

South Africa

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Also known as the Minoan Civilization, named for the legendary King Minos. Like all White writers of history, he struggles to tell Black history, without actually mentioning Black people. But since many of his factual observations are accurate, we begin with these excerpts from his book. It is only within recent years that the necessary archaeological data have been available which enables students of ancient civilization to draw with some degree of confidence that Crete was the birthplace of Aegean civilization, which radiated in the pre-Hellenic times throughout Europe.

Although it has been demonstrated that the Cretan leaven was in existence and at work at the dawn of the Egyptian Dynastic Age, and when the Sumerians were achieving their earliest triumphs in the Tigro-Euphratean valley, we are still confronted with the problem of remote origin. The earliest settlers in Crete had, as their artifacts demonstrate, already obtained a comparatively high degree of Neolithic culture. Houses were built of stone as well as of wattles daubed with clay, a sea trade was in existence, for obsidian was imported from Melos, and a section of the community had adopted the agricultural mode of life.

The earliest settlement of people at Knossos has been assigned to about 10, B. C, an approximate dating which is based on the evidence of the archaeological strata.

South Africa

Tuesday 11 July Animals collapsed at the border between the two nations as only a few hundred camels were allowed to cross each day. Remaining camels were herded into huge pens and left in the heat which reached 50 degrees Celsius. Some owners said the camels were herded out en masse, and owners spent days during Ramadan trying to identify them.

Potchefstroom: Yesterday, 9 November , Douglas Matambandini (46) and Mmoloki Moseki (49) appeared in the Klerksdorp Magistrate’s Court for the alleged possession of .

Slavery in modern Africa Slavery in Mauritania persists despite its abolition in and mostly affects the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery who now live in Mauritania as “black Moors ” or haratin and who partially still serve the “white Moors”, or bidhan, as slaves. The practice of slavery in Mauritania is most dominant within the traditional upper class of the Moors. For centuries, the haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by these Moors.

Social attitudes have changed among most urban Moors, but in rural areas, the ancient divide remains. In August, German general Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke , where most of them died of thirst. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans, suffering a similar fate. The violence eventually led to a genocide of the Herero and Nama people by the Germans, known as the Herero and Namaqua genocide.

In total, 24, to , Herero and 10, Nama died. Some sources also claim that the German colonial army systematically poisoned desert wells. In , except for archive copies, records of the genocide were withdrawn and destroyed following a decision of the then Legislative Assembly.

US, South African farmers cry fowl over Trump metal tariffs

South Africa has one of the longest sequences of human development in the world. It begins with two million years old hominid fossils. Human Origins South African scientists have been actively involved in the study of human origins since when Raymond Dart identified the Taung child as an infant halfway between apes and humans.

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This is an important question because the species is under enormous pressure. In places like KwaZulu-Natal, white sharks are culled in large numbers by shark nets and drumlines. They are accidentally caught in gill nets and longlines intended for other fish. They are also losing prey, as many of their favoured fish species are overfished and those species populations are declining. White sharks are an important bellwether species. By studying and monitoring white shark populations, scientists are able to provide accurate data for conservation purposes.

Angus Buchan calls on SA farmers to “exercise restraint”

It was explored by Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz in and was used as a place of replenishing supplies by visiting ships before being converted into a prison and an asylum for mentally ill patients from Visitors to the park not only enjoy the biodiversity of the park, but also endless beaches that stretch kilometres from Maphelane in the south to Kosi Bay on the Mozambique border. The park has a variety of accommodation options and tours for visitors, and the duration of the visit is usually one week if you plan on getting the full experience of the park.

Prices for tours and accommodation are available on request.

The national spokesman of a key South African opposition party has said redistributing land from white farmers without compensation is justified because “it is not really their land.

Nowell of Charleston, SC. View 66 of the series Charleston and vicinity, a party of Negroes both male and female working in a sweet potato field, yellow mount, light soiling at edge, photo fine, scarce Chase of Baltimore, MD. Men, women, and children posing behind a large cotton basket in a field, very fine On September 29, , 2, Union soldiers from Maj.

Lee saw the potential threat to Richmond and ordered a counterattack on September The attack failed, but Brig. Stannard lost an arm while resisting Lee’s assault. This failure forced the Confederates to realign their defenses farther west. Fort Burnham remained in Union hands until the end of the war.

Farmers & South Africans unite against farm murders and attacks